Silver $29.66 Gold $2331.00 Platinum $998.00 Palladium $945.00 Copper $0.28 Active: 316

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Our information archive for Collectors, Appraisers and Researchers helps guide you to a knowledge of what you have and how to appraise. Spend some time here, learn about your antiques and collectibles and what they are worth.

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How do I create a Zelle account so I can receive instant payments?

Zelle is a convenient way to send and receive money directly from your bank account. Setting up a Zelle account through your online banking app or by going in to your local branch is a straightforward process. Follow these steps to get started:

Step-by-Step Guide for Online

Step 1: Open Your Banking App

  • Log in to your online banking app using your username and password.

Step 2: Find the Zelle Option

  • Navigate to the menu or services section of your banking app.
  • Look for the option labeled "Zelle" or "Send Money with Zelle."
  • Select the Zelle option to begin the setup process.

Step 3: Register Your Account

  • Enter the required information, such as your email address or mobile phone number.
  • Verify your email or phone number by entering the code sent to you via email or SMS.

Step 4: Link Your Bank Account

  • Select the bank account you want to link to your Zelle account.
  • Confirm the account details and complete the linking process.

Step 5: Complete the Setup

  • Review and accept the terms and conditions.
  • Finish the registration process by confirming your details.
  • You should receive a confirmation message indicating that your Zelle account is ready to use.


Creating a Zelle account through your online banking app is quick and easy. By following these steps, you'll be able to send and receive money seamlessly with Zelle. Enjoy the convenience of digital banking!

What is the Custom Barracuda to Hot Wheels collectors?

The Custom Barracuda is a Hot Wheels casting designed by Harry Bradley. It made its debut in 1968 as part of the first sixteen Hot Wheels ever, often referred to as the 'Sweet Sixteen'. The casting is based on the real-life 1967 Plymouth Barracuda.

Here are some key details about the Custom Barracuda:

  • Manufacturing and Differences:
    • It was manufactured in 1968 and 1969 at both the USA and Hong Kong factories.
    • USA-built cars have clear glass, while Hong Kong (HK) cars have blue-tinted glass.
    • USA Barracudas feature a detailed interior with a dashboard and a molded-in steering wheel. In contrast, HK cars have a flat piece of plastic representing the dashboard and a separate black steering wheel.
    • USA cars could be found with a white or dark brown interior, while Hong Kong cars had various interior colors, including white, brownish/gray, dark brown, silver, and purple. Purple interiors were rare and usually found in matching purple exterior cars, but they occasionally appeared in Copper and Aqua cars.
  • Design Features:
    • The Custom Barracuda has an opening hood that reveals a detailed engine.
    • USA cars have shorter 'power bulges' (hood scoops) and a thinner cowl compared to their Hong Kong counterparts.
    • Some early HK-manufactured cars had deeper power bulges, particularly on Aqua and Purple cars.
    • Hong Kong cars have a detailed base with four square holes to view the Bent Axle Suspension, which are absent from USA-built vehicles.
    • There are also minor base variations involving the size and addition of ™ and © symbols.
  • Hybrids and Rarity:
    • Some Custom Barracudas are 'Hybrids', using a mix of parts from both USA and Hong Kong. These are harder to find than standard cars.
    • The oddity of hybrids likely resulted from material shortages or problems, necessitating parts to be shipped between factories.
  • Color and Wheels:
    • The Custom Barracuda was painted in a variety of Spectraflame colors, some of which are very rare.
    • Unlike most early 'Redline Era' cars, the Custom Barracuda was never manufactured with a black roof.
    • All Custom Barracudas came with delrin 'Bearing' Redline wheels, and some early Hong Kong-produced vehicles had 'Deep Dish' wheels on the front.
    • Each Custom Barracuda was packaged with a metal Collector's Button.
  • Modifications and Rebranding:
    • In 1970, the Custom Barracuda underwent significant modifications and was renamed King Kuda. It was released in the Spoilers series.
    • The King Kuda featured an exposed blown engine, replacing the one under the opening hood, and prominent front and rear spoilers.
    • In 2011, the Custom Barracuda was re-tooled for the RLC Membership, based on the original USA casting.

How can I tell the date of my Case knife?

Note: The fixed blade knife dating guide is at the bottom of this page.
Since its inception in 1889, the Case Knife Company has been at the forefront of knife manufacturing. Collectors of Case knives have the unique opportunity to hold pieces of American history in their hands, with knives from each era of the company's production. Each knife isn't just a tool; it's a piece of art that represents a specific time in craftsmanship and industry.

Decoding the Age of a Case Knife

This article is here to sharpen your skills in dating your Case knives by looking at their tang stamps. But what exactly is a tang stamp? It's a marking found on the blade—often at the handle—that usually includes the brand name and often includes the production year of the knife. Case has been one of the few companies that consistently has used tang stamps to date their knives throughout their history, making it easier for collectors to verify and appreciate the age of their collectibles.

Use this handy tang stamp guide as a way to determining the age of your beautiful Case knives.

Case Select

Oddball Tangs


1920-1940 Case Tested XX era

1940-1964 Case XX era

1950-1964 Case XX era — Stainless

1965-1969 Case XX era


10 dots → 1970
9 dots → 1971
8 dots → 1972
7 dots → 1973
6 dots → 1974
5 dots → 1975
4 dots → 1976
3 dots → 1977
2 dots → 1978
1 dot → 1979


10 dots → 1980
9 dots → 1981
8 dots → 1982
7 dots → 1983
6 dots → 1984
5 dots → 1985
4 dots → 1986
3 dots → 1987
2 dots → 1988
1 dot → 1989


19 USA 90 1990 → date stamped
19 USA 91 1991 → date stamped
19 USA 92 1992 → date stamped
19 USA 93 1993 → date stamped
1995 Case Knife 7 dots → 1993
6 dots → 1994
5 dots → 1995
4 dots → 1996
3 dots → 1997
2 dots → 1998
1 dot → 1999


5 x 5 dots → 2000
5 x 4 dots → 2001
5 x 3 dots → 2002
5 x 2 dots → 2003
5 x 1 dots → 2004
5 x 0 dots → 2005
4 x → 2006
3 x → 2007
2 x → 2008
1 x → 2009


5 x 5 dots → 2010
5 x 4 dots → 2011
5 x 3 dots → 2012
5 x 2 dots → 2013
5 x 1 dots → 2014
5 x 0 dots → 2015
4 x → 2016
3 x → 2017
2 x → 2018
1 x → 2019


NOTE: We've seen all block letters on the tang (exactly like the 1970s) and also tangs with block letters and a lightning S. The main feature of the 2020s is they are reusing the old dot style from the 1970s.
10 dots → 2020
9 dots → 2021
8 dots → 2022
7 dots → 2023
6 dots → 2024
5 dots → 2025
4 dots → 2026
3 dots → 2027
2 dots → 2028
1 dot → 2029

Fixed Blade Knives

Who buys Case knife collections today? Finding buyers for Case knife collections can be challenging due to the aging of the market participants and the general decline in the economy. The market has seen a decline in dedicated dealers, largely due to older dealers retiring and a decreased interest among younger people to collect much of anything. This shift has led to fluctuating market values, making it more important than ever to understand who is buying and what they are looking for in a collection. That's not to say the market for Case knives is dead. It is not. But finding someone in your area to buy your entire collection lock, stock, and barrel might not be too easy.

In Closing Whether you're a seasoned collector or new to the world of knife collecting, understanding how to date your Case knives is key to appreciating their worth and historical significance. Remember, each stamp, each blade has a story, and with a little knowledge, you can uncover the tales of craftsmanship that make your collection truly unique. Happy collecting!

About Our Sponsor This article is sponsored by 2nd Markets of Nashville, Tennessee. Recognized as one of the top buyers of Case knife collections in the United States, 2nd Markets offers expertise and passion for these classic collectibles. If you're looking to assess the value of your collection or find a new home for your knives, contact them. Google: 2ND MARKETS KNIFE BUYER or go to

How do I make a proper inventory list of my knife collection?

Before considering the sale of your valuable knife collection, it's paramount to create a detailed inventory list. This critical document is often the first thing requested by prospective buyers. Collectors and dealers rely on specific information to gauge their interest and propose a fair price. Without a detailed inventory, assessing the value and interest in your collection can be difficult or impossible. For those new to the world of knife collecting, the task may appear daunting. However, this guide aims to simplify the process, ensuring you cover all necessary details efficiently.

iGuide suggests utilizing a spreadsheet application, such as Google Sheets or Microsoft Excel, for inventory management. Google Sheets is particularly favored among buyers for its accessibility and is available at no cost with a Gmail account. Creating a Gmail account is straightforward and can be done by searching for "FREE GMAIL ACCOUNT" online.
(detail from a Google Sheets page) knife sheet example

What are the key details buyers need to know?

A good list will contain these key points at a minimum:


knife tang stamp brand example

The brand or maker of your knife will usually be printed on the handle, often on the shield (the little metal tag on the handle) or on the blade near where the blade and the handle connect. This tiny text printed on the blade is called the TANG STAMP.

Model Number

knife model number example

The MODEL or PATTERN number of your knife is very important. It is usually stamped on the TANG STAMP. Write all the text, for example: 3254 SS.


knife blades example

How many blades does the knife have?

Year of Production

knife year example

Do you know? Often the year is printed on the knife blade or on its box if you still have it. This is very helpful information, but optional.


State whether the knife is USED or LIKE NEW. If it is in the original box, mention it.


How many do you have? The answer goes into your quantity column.


knife country of production example

What country was the knife made in? This too can often be found on one of the tang stamps, or on the box if you have it.

Special Notes

knife noye example

Sometimes you may have a limited edition, or a commemorative knife. There may be some text and art printed on the blade. This is important information. Include it in your Notes column.

Who buys knife collections today?

One of the top buyers of fine knife collections is 2nd Markets of Nashville, TN. Google 2ND MARKETS BBB PROFILE to learn more.

Learn More About Knife Values

iGuide’s knife price guide is a good place to find the pricing information about your knife collection and its current value. Learn more. This guide provides a starting point for creating an inventory list of your knife collection. By documenting your collection thoroughly, you're not only preparing for potential sales but also preserving the history and value of your cherished items.

How do I make a proper inventory list of my coin collection?

Before considering the sale of your valuable coin collection, it's paramount to create a detailed inventory list. This critical document is often the first thing requested by prospective buyers. Collectors and dealers rely on specific information to gauge their interest and propose a fair price. Without a detailed inventory, assessing the value and interest in your collection can be difficult or impossible. For those new to selling coins, the task may appear overwhelming. However, this guide aims to simplify the process, ensuring you cover all necessary details efficiently.

iGuide suggests utilizing a spreadsheet application, such as Google Sheets or Microsoft Excel, for inventory management. Google Sheets is particularly favored among buyers for its accessibility and is available at no cost with a Gmail account. Creating a Gmail account is straightforward and can be done by searching for "FREE GMAIL ACCOUNT" online. Coin Inventory Example


Identifying the year a coin was minted is generally a simple task. However, if the date isn't visible due to wear, understand that this more likely indicates damage rather than a minting error.

Mint Marks

Mint marks is an essential point for coin collectors, with certain marks potentially increasing the coin's value significantly. The mint marks in the United States are:
  • P: Philadelphia Mint (also the U.S. Mint's main office, thus some coins may not feature a mint mark).
  • D: Denver Mint.
  • O: New Orleans Mint.
  • S: San Francisco Mint.
  • W: West Point Mint.
  • CC: Carson City Mint (known for its rarity and high value).
For assistance in identifying mint marks, a quick internet search can be very informative, or contact iGuide.


State the denomination of each coin in your collection, whether it be a penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half-dollar, or dollar.

Coin Type

Including the type of each coin, while not mandatory, can offer additional insight into your collection.Don't know the type? It's okay to omit it.


Do your best to evaluate and describe the condition of each coin, even if it's a broad description like "USED" or "LIKE NEW." For coin sets or commemorative issues, describe the state of the packaging and whether items like certificates of authenticity are included, noting the condition as "like-new" if applicable.


Following these guidelines will help you compile a proper inventory list for your coin collection, putting you in a strong position for future sales or evaluations.

What is a Morgan Silver Dollar?

More than a century ago in the late 1800’s, the Morgan Silver Dollar helped the United States become one of the world’s great economic powers. It was beloved at home and treasured around the world for its large size and silver weight, and it has remained a collector favorite to this day.

The Morgan Silver Dollar was born out of the discovery of the Comstock Lode in Nevada, which was the greatest silver strike in American history. In 1878 the U.S. Congress passed the Bland-Allison Act, which required the United States Mint to strike new dollar coins with domestic silver, primarily from the Comstock Lode. The coin was first issued later that same year. It was especially popular in the Western states and territories, and it became a symbol of the “Wild West.”

Named after its designer, U.S. Mint engraver George T. Morgan, the Morgan Silver Dollar features a beautiful portrait of Liberty on the front and a dramatic American eagle on the back. Each coin was struck in 90% silver and is so large that it was known as a “cartwheel” in the West. It was the largest United States silver coin of its era made for circulation.

In the early 1900’s, more than half of the entire production of Morgan Silver Dollars were melted by the U.S. government for their silver content, and millions more were melted in later years to take advantage of rising silver prices. Many of those that remained were worn or damaged in circulation. As a result, only a fraction of all Morgan Silver Dollars remain today, and those in uncirculated condition are the most coveted of all.

What is the early history of the Colt Firearms Company?

It was the year 1832. At the United States Patent Office in Washington, William P. Elliott listened patiently to a tall, eager youth of eighteen. Enthusiastically the lad explained drawings of his invention and displayed a crude pistol which operated on a novel revolving principle.

When advised that he should first file a caveat and then develop a perfect model, the lad Samuel Colt by name was far from discouraged. He was determined to return soon with everything necessary!

Laughing Gas (Nitrous Oxide) has built few fortunes, but it did serve here to help young Sam Colt along a few of those first hard miles on the road to success. Billed as Dr. Coult, Sam traveled to New Orleans, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Albany, Quebec anywhere he could find a paying audience to witness his sensational demonstrations of the gas effects, and thus provide the funds necessary to finance his firearms endeavors. Nearly three years slipped by as Sam barnstormed around the country, but at the same time, Sam was working hard at redesigning his firearm models. He finally succeeded in having some pistols and rifles made up by Baltimore gunsmiths.

Then Sam Colt was on the high seas bound for England, regarded by many on that day as "The Mother Country." Here on December 18, 1835, the first Colt patent was issued. A copy of this interesting document is preserved at the Colt Museum in Hartford.

The English patent (number 6909) described Colt's invention, in part, as follows: "The mode of causing the breech piece to rotate is by a lifter and ratchet motion, and locking it during discharge by a key. A shield (frame plate) is used to protect the lock from wet smoke, and fouling. The axis of the percussion hole is in line with the axis of the chamber."

Many have wondered why Sam Colt secured his first patent in Europe. There were probably several good reasons. A peculiarity of the English patent law would have denied Colt protection in England if he patented his invention first in the United States. Furthermore, you will recall that Mr. E. H. Collier, a Bostonian who found little encouragement in America, went to England, and his revolving Flint locks were quickly accepted there. Sam's motives were explained somewhat in the following excerpt from an 1838 issue of Spirit of The Times:

"When Mr. Colt was in Paris, and proceeding concerning the impression that Europe was the most desirable field for profit to the inventor, the clouds arose, threatening to burst in a storm of war between France and our United States. His views changed instantly. In such a crisis, he would not give his enviable facilities to his country's foe. He decided to waive all considerations of private interest, for the public good of his beloved native land, and forthwith returned to offer his discovery at Washington, to sustain our side in the expected conflict. But he had scarcely arrived there, when the news of the mediation of England for the adjustment of the difficulties, met him; and his patriotic ambition to serve his country was foiled before he had a chance of even disclosing it."

This incident, and Sam's loyalty to his native land, may have been the determining factors that brought the manufacture of Colt firearms to Paterson, U. S. A., rather than at some address in England, Belgium, or France.

Young Sam, arriving home from Europe, hurried down to Washington. On February 25, 1836, he was granted his first firearms patent. This instrument and patent number 1304, dated August 29, 1839, protected the basic principles of all Colt revolving arms made at Paterson, N. J.

The basic principles. were, in brief:
  • 1. Centrally placed nipples or tubes at the rear of the cyclin are sometimes referred to as a rotating breech or receiver.
  • 2. Each nipple is isolated by partitions to prevent simultaneous discharge.
  • 3. Rotating the cylinder by an act of cocking the hammer.
  • 4. Locking the cylinder in proper adjustment at the moment of discharge, and unlocking it by lifting the hammer when cocking.
These were Colt's main claims. They were defended successfully throughout, as in the famous Massachusetts Arms Co. trial, and until the patents expired in 1857.

Ambitious Sam Colt first claimed invention of the percussion tube (nipple) designed with an aperture "funnel shaped, to freely admit the fire . . . and concentrating it as it enters the chambers." Later, however, he filed a disclaimer, stating that, while he was an original inventor of the system, he may not have been the first to use it. A nipple with four shoulders to engage the applying wrench, and of a size suited to No. 9 percussion caps, was the design used in Paterson pistols.

A New Inventive Era

Multi shot firearms, such as the English flintlock "Pepperboxes" and Collier's flintlock revolver, were handicapped by the system of their ignition. But the percussion cap gave impetus to a new inventive era. The evolution is very interesting, and especially well portrayed in Hand Cannon To Automatic by Herschel C. Logan.
Experimental pistols. All are associated with Paterson except the third pistol, which is an evolutionary model from which "Walker" pistols were developed. Colt Co. collection.

Hot on the heels of Colt came Barton and Benjamin Darling with a revolving "pepperbox" which they patented on April 13, 1836. Allen followed in 1837, Nichols & Childs in 1838, and many others including the ambitious Mighill Nutting.

"Pepperbox" patents gave Colt his most serious competition, for these pistols sold at an average of $10 each, whereas Paterson pistols, we are told in old advertisements, retailed at $25 to $100, depending 6n the type and decoration. Some were sold at a reduced bargain price of $16.00.

John Ehlers, in an advertisement of 1845 featuring Colt's pistols, warned his readers, "Great impositions have been lately practiced on the public by representing and selling the six barrel or self cocking pistol as Colt's Patent Pistol. Please note that in deference to popular practice in 1 %. 1836 43, I use the word "pistol" in referring to Colt's early repeating small arms, rather than the more modern term "revolver."

Experimental Models

The Main Street shop of Anson Chase in Hartford produced the first (and faulty) specimen pistols on the Colt system in 1831 32. Chase, a locksmith and gunsmith, was assisted in the work by Wm. H. Rowe, who received the magnificent sum of $1.25 per day for his labors.

A more competent workman, John Pearson of Balti, was engaged in 1834, and "a one man factory" was started, to manufacture sample firearms of Colt pattern. Pearson received the magnificent sum of $10 for a sixty hour week. In 1835, Fred H. Brash was engaged to assist Pearson, and Frederick Hanson is also believed to have worked on some of the Colt models.

Mr. Charles Winthrop Sawyer (Firearms In American History Vol. 2) asserted that Frederick Hanson of Baltimore assisted Pearson in producing the "Promotion Model" Colt pistol illustrated herein, and that "it was handsomely stocked and richly engraved by Richard B. Henshaw of Green St., New York City." There is evidence that this is true. Mr. Sawyer estimated that a total of approximately six pistols and two rifles were made before the more extensive experiments were undertaken at Paterson. Probably more than that were produced. An exact number cannot be accurately judged, neither is it especially important.

Considerable experimentation did take place both at Baltimore and Paterson, we do know. A few of these models have been preserved and can be seen now in the Colt collection at the Connecticut State Library and at Hart Ford's Wadsworth Atheneum, where Samuel Colt's collection is housed.

It was a big jump forward from the experimental models to the stream lined Paterson pistols first put in production, as exemplified by the pistol with the 'I" serial number on pages 30 and 31.

Samuel Colt’s Contribution

We are dealing here with the works, rather than the personality of Samuel Colt, and will limit comment to those matters bearing directly on the manufacture and sale of firearms, except for a few words.

The quotations that follow, published in 1838, contain a few views on the Colt career that I have not found elsewhere in the writings of Colt historians:
"Very few mechanical improvements within the last few years, have excited a greater degree of interest than the patent Firearms of Mr. Colt, and still fewer are there, likely to be productive of results so important. As some history of the original invention, and the progressive improvement made upon it, will be new to many of our readers, and interesting to all, we have no hesitancy in devoting to it all the space at our command. The annexed extract is from a communication in the Journal of the American Institute:

"The thought of the repeating arms originated with a citizen of Connecticut, Samuel Colt; at the time of its first dawning upon him, a mere boy; for even now, he is not over four and twenty.

"Mr. Colt happened to be near the scene of a sanguinary insurrection of negro slaves, in the southern district of Virginia. He was startled to think against what fearful odds be in one shot, when opposed to multitudes, even though multitudes of the unarmed? The master and his family were certain to be massacred. Was there no way, thought Mr. Colt, of enabling the planter to repose in peace? no longer to feel that to be attacked, was to be at once and inevitably destroyed? that no resistance could avail, were the negroes once spirited up to revolt? As yet he knew little of mechanics; in firearms, he was aware of nothing more efficient than the ordinary double barrelled pistol and fowling piece. But even loading and reloading these, involved a most perilous loss of time: Could no mode be hit upon of obviating the danger of such delay?

"The boy's ingenuity was from that moment on the alert. He meditated in secret; and after repeated trials, he affected a movement of six distinct barrels on an arbor running through their center, in such a manner that by every operation of cocking the lock, a loaded barrel would be brought to a line with the hammer, and there held firm until discharged.

Presently he found That the Weapon was complex, and would be cumbersome. He was determined to make the scheme known when he could bring it into a form more simple, and more manageable. Plan upon plan hurried his fancy onward until it was wearied with the rapid variety of its conceptions. But the delight of invention, so fascinating to the projector, at length gave way to the soberness of calculation. "While in this state of mind, he had to travel through a part of the country in which the protection of firearms was indispensable and had no weapon but his six barrel pistol. On one occasion this did him such valuable service, that his mind again involuntarily reverted to its earliest ambition. He suddenly asked himself, 'Why may there not as well be only one barrel and one lock, and between them a rotary receiver for the charges? Could this point be gained, the weapon would be compact and light enough. It would be scarcely heavier than an ordinary single one. Then would there remain nothing to be desired:
In these buildings, backed against the Passaic River at Paterson, N. J., the first Colt patent pistols and rifles were manufactured by Patent Arms Mfg. Co. Pen sketch by Chas. F. Sawyer, from the library of Raymond L. J. Riling.

"He plodded on unremittingly till he effected his object. No person was entrusted with his secret. His first rude efforts, especially at the time when he had intended to ban don the undertaking, had leaked out; and other persons had wrought upon the hint, and with feeble and unavailable imitations, had puffed themselves into notice. But Mr. Colt felt satisfied that the imperfectness of the copy would prevent it from doing him an ultimate injury, and he was resolved to profit by experience, and keep his final improvements to himself, until his right to the entire discovery should be secured to him by patent abroad, as well as at home. He did not even disclose his patent to his father, till he had laid his plan to depart. He went to Europe. He became favorably known at the patent offices, and placed his interest beyond dispute, under the protection of the laws of the various countries which he visited. "Spirit of the Times. History records of Samuel Colt that he contributed very effective weapons to the arsenals of America and Revitalized the manufacture of firearms throughout the world. In so doing, he gave profitable employment to thousands and amassed a fortune for himself and his family. Colt's ambition was stronger than his body, which, prey to arthritis, was laid to rest in 1862. The "incredible career" of Samuel Colt ended before he could complete his 48th year.

Being human, Sam Colt made mistakes. I believe that those who read this book will share my opinion that no con constructive purpose would be served here by invading the intimate privacy of the Colt family life. Let us relegate reports of unwise conduct to entombment with the man who is now helpless to defend himself. Samuel Colt's industry has provided a great wealth of enjoyment for American arms collectors. An urge to enter the romantic realm of "Coltianna" sooner or later comes to every student of firearms.

Wheels Begin To Turn

Eighteen hundred and thirty six was a busy year for the 22 year old Hartford inventor. Patents were granted; a stock company of New York and New Jersey capitalists organized; a factory site engaged at Paterson, N. J.; experiments with machinery and models were undertaken. And by the autumn, a small number of Colt's patent repeating firearms were on the workbenches. "The Patent Arms Manufacturing Company" was granted a New Jersey charter on March 5, 1836, which charter was amended twice in 1839. Elias B. D. Ogden (later judge) was named President, and Colt's cousin, Dudley Selden, was appointed Secretary and General Manager. John Ehlers, of New York City, an important stockholder, later became very prominent in the affairs of the Company. !I son pistols, this Baltimore made specimen is yed to prospective investors, when the Patent oriented. Known as the "Promotion Model. "was appointed Secretary and General Manager. John Ehlers, of New York City, an important stockholder, later became very prominent in the affairs of the Company.

The Old Gun Mill

Perched above the turbulent Passaic River, just off of Van Houten Street, is a spot well known to the historically minded citizens of Paterson. Here, in "the old gun mill," was cradled not only the first successful repeating firearms of America but the silk industry as well! Particularly enlightening is The History of Industrial Paterson by L. R. Trumbull, printed in Paterson, in 1882. From 'this we quote, "Under these auspices (The Patent Arms M'g. Co.) the Gun Mill proper was erected after the manufacture of the patent arms had been experimentally carried on for a short time in an obscure mill then standing. When finished the mill was, especially for that day, a very fine structure, about 100 x 40 feet, four stories high with an attic. On the spire that surmounted the bell tower was a vane very elaborately made in the design of a finished gun, and in front of the mill was a fence, each picket being a wooden gun, and the whole was beautifully painted. There were several small buildings attached to the mill proper, and over the raceway was an office in which Henry B. Crosby, then one of the most skilled workmen, slept for several years."

Compared to modern factories, or the later Colt Hart Ford buildings, this factory building was neither large nor imposing. Historic and valuable firearms were fabricated here, however, and it served its purpose well. Having studied the methods of Eli Whitney and Springfield Armory, especially about interchangeable parts, Colt planned to employ machinery for as much of his work as possible. Sam's ambitions were restrained somewhat by limited funds, and the unsympathetic attitude of his Cousin Dudley, general manager of the Company. The arms were fabricated "part by hand and part by machinery." A rather good uniformity was achieved, however.

Jack Rohan says that Thomas Lawton of Baltimore was engaged as foreman of the Paterson factory, but Trumbull asserts that Pliny Lawton of Ware, Mass, was "superintendent of the works." Records at the Connecticut Historical Society favor Pliny Lawton. Henry B. Crosby was brought in from Springfield, Mass, where he had been working on fine machinery, to head the lock department. Philip Rafferty also is known to have been employed, as well as Fred Hanson, later a famous gunsmith on Prospect St., Paterson, A. Pulhamus, and Ira Leonard. H. Barrett Crosby, a grandson of Henry B. Crosby, was interviewed by the author, and the Crosby association with the Paterson factory was fully confirmed. We learn through Trumbull, that, "Many of the revolvers and guns finished here were, of almost oriental magnificence. Some of the arms were intended for foreign countries, presents being sent to Princes, Governments, and distinguished men the world over."

Up Stairs A Silk Mill

The upper portion of the gun mill was occupied by Messrs. Murray and Ryle for about two years while the Patent Arms M'g. Co. made pistols below. It seems probable that the first silk machinery was brought from Hartford in the year 1838 by Christopher Colt, brother of Samuel. In a very short time, however, this undertaking was abandoned. In 1840 Mr. Murray took possession and put Mr. Ryle in full charge. It is claimed for Paterson that here occurred the first successful manufacture of silk in the United States.

Work Begins 1836

Occupied primarily with organization, the Patent Arms M'g. Co. produced but little in 1836, and not much reference can be found as to any arms made in that year. In a lecture before the Institution of Civil Engineers in London some years later, however, Colt referred to the sketch of an early type eight shot rifle, which he said was made in 1836. The early endeavors appear to have favored rifles.
An old photograph of Paterson, N. J, showing, at far right, the factory where Colt patent firearms were first made. The sketch below provides a frontal view and was copied from an illustration in an old issue of "Paterson Evening News. "President Andrew Jackson (1829 1837) was in the White House and Sam promptly called to show his wares to the old soldier, and to present him with a fine specimen, probably the first "Presentation Colt" of record.

A Government Trial 1837

Sam's hard plugging in Washington finally resulted in a trial being arranged for Colt's invention before the board of Army ordnance officers at West Point, N. Y. The First firearms of his design submitted for government trial were revolving muskets. They failed to impress the ordnance officers, who gave them an unfavorable report, suggesting, "their advance tags are counterbalanced by the complexity of construction and consequent greater liability to derangement and accidents. "Writing June 1, 1840, in defense of another trial, Colt stated, "The arms submitted in 1837 ... were the first arms ever made on my principle, and were got up in a great hurry. Consequently, the arms were imperfect and easily gotten out of order."

A Government Order 1838

Although we are reserving for PART V the data about Paterson made long arms, it is important to the sequence of events to include some mention of them here. In February 1838, Sam departed for Florida, where the warring Seminole Indians were giving the United States Army serious difficulties. In Colonel William S. Harney, Sam found a staunch friend and the first Army officer to successfully champion Colt's arms. Because of Col. Harney's favorable recommendations, General Thomas S. Jesup purchased from Colt fifty revolving rifles, eight shot patterns, of various calibers, for $125.00 each. Some Paterson pistols were sold to officers of Jesup's command. Mal G. J. Rains, active in the Seminole campaign, later praised the rifles as follows: "This weapon, eight times as efficient in the fire as the musket is unequaled by any in the service. "Back in New York, rifles appeared to be getting the greater attention, also. At the American Institute of the City of New York for the Encouragement of Science and Invention, Colt's rifle won a gold medal in 1837. At that time his pistol was brushed aside with this brief comment: "Revolving chambered pistols best fit only for military uses." Again in 1838, Colt's rifle won the Institute's award. An exhibition of Colt's eight shot rifles was held at the Battery, New York City, on February 19, 1838. At that time, Dick & Holmes, agents, offered Colt rifles for sale at $150.00 each. In times when a large glass of beer, costing 50 cents, brought with it a free lunch, $150.00 was not exactly a paltry sum!

The Texas Navy 1839

Important events, heretofore somewhat obscure, occurred in 1839, and we find the first sale of Colt pistols for naval use. In Texas John Fuller, representing Colt, had interested Memicum Hunt (Secretary of the Navy Department), Col. Geo. W. Hockley (Armory Officer), and others in Colt's arms. This led to an order for 180 carbines and 180 pistols, Aware of the difficulty of initiating the government to entertain the idea of any change lathe implements of warfare ideas spurred palsy the necessities of actual service. Mr. Colt. resolved, to look additively to the spirit of the pinta enterprise for giving efficacy to his invention:

He obtained a charter from the legislature of New Jersey, for a Patent Armeldensfimuring Company, with a capital of three hundred theusmadviallars. Mesta & lass has been taken by several of our wealthiest citizens. An armory is already boat at Paterson, K .1. When its arrangements are complete, this armory will employ five hundred artisans. Upwards of one hundred are now constantly at work there, not only during the entire day but even through a portion of the night.

Alibis recent fair of the `Arun= Institute. specimens of these, ingenious weepers, were exhibited in public for the first time. They attracted universal ad. mimosa. A committee of loaned sud practical mechanics pronounced upon their merits. After the most rigid scrutiny, they were accorded the highest and unqualified praise. The inventor was elected a member of the Institute. He was also presented with the greeting distinctive in the power of the Institute to bestow a solder medal.

To give readers a better understanding of the principle upon which these Firearms are constructed, the following diagram is submitted of a Pistol, which is manufactured and acts upon the same principle as the Riau, with the exception. that the Cocked Rifle acts horizontally and is concealed beneath the Sight:

`The perillas = preside Ai tidal in three detached partials, as
  • A—The stock, including the Hamm attack, and the Cylinder on which the Receiver B revolves and to wk.& the Barrel C is fastened.
  • B—the Receiver et Chamber, prepared for five charges.
  • C—the Buret, climb. 'is fastened to the Cylinder, on which the Iteceiv. er, re evolves; to the left of the letter Oels. fite wedge, which fastens the Barrel to the Cylinder." '
The loiter piste, Dr promotes the Pistol Complete, cocked ready for firing. When discharged, the triad, by tarring. maybe closed into the Stock; the act of cocking throw the Triggered, mad turns the Receiver one charge each time. B represents the inverted sod or the Receiver, adjoining the. Barrel, The five black dots denote the Chambers for damn, and the •white ring (enclosing the letter E) the lade or aperture dames which the Cylinder runs:

Presents the inverted cad of die Receiver, neat the Hammer. the small white dots denoting the Conn on each percussion Cape are placed.

A later additional purchase by. Texas may be indicated by old records which recite litigation as to payment.

Edward Ward Moore, after several years in the United States Naval Service, resigned in 1839 and accepted the appointment of "Post Captain Commanding," with courtesy rank of Commodore, to the Navy of the Republic of Texas.

Commodore Moore wasted no time; he got busy outfitting his ships in the port of Baltimore (a city closely allied with the fortunes of Sam Colt). Here it was, no doubt, that Moore contacted Sam in nearby Washington, and discussed the arms concerning which he later testified:
"The Texas volunteers of war were armed with Colt's pistols and carbines, which were on very frequent occasions exposed in boats and bad weather, and I unhesitatingly assert that they are as little injured by exposure to the weather as the common musket or ship's pistol. "The Colt pistols, used by the Texas Rangers before annexation, were all supplied from the navy after they had been in constant use upward of four years; and I know some of these arms that have been in constant use for nine years, and are still good.

"I have seen the recently improved model (Walker) which has several alterations, or rather improvements, which make it a better arm than those I had in use in the Texas Navy, which were among the first manufactured by the inventor."

It is not difficult to understand why Colt later honored the Texas Navy and his friend Moore with an Ormsby en engraving, symbolizing their victorious May 16, 1843 engagement with the Mexican fleet. This ship scene decorated the cylinders of subsequent Navy and Army (Model 1860) revolvers made at Hartford.

Jack Hays, a famous Texas Ranger, and soldier, having obtained some of the Texas Navy pistols, is credited with their most spectacular use against the Indians (Comanches). Leading fifteen men armed with CoIt's Paterson pistols, he is reported to have routed eighty redskins, killing forty two of them.

Improved Patents

The most important of the Colt patents, insofar as actual Paterson manufacture is concerned, is number 1304, dated August 29, 1839. This patent records the improvements brought about by experimentation at Paterson, mostly before the start of any actual production. No production pistols have been found of the 1836 patent design, whereas the earliest Paterson pistols produced conform to the drawings of 1839. Pistols of the 1839 pattern were certainly in actual production before the dating of the patent. Pistols of belt size in the 1839 pattern are shown in the 1838 illustration. The shoulder arm with exposed hammer, a system used in Paterson shotguns and six shot carbines, made its debut in this patent.


One of the earliest printed illustrations of Colt pistols. Two grip designs are shown. The text is enlightening; more will be quoted on page 300.

Among other things, Colt claimed, "the mouths of the chambers and the (rear) end of the barrel have their edges chamfered or beveled. In all guns of this description, there is necessarily a lateral discharge between the receiver and barrel, and this lateral discharge may endanger the ignition of the powder in the loaded chambers not in contact with the barrel; but the ignited matter, by coming in contact with the beveled edges as it crosses said chamber, is effectively reflected off, and does not enter them. The beveling of the barrel is intended merely to prevent cutting the ball in its passage from the chambers."

Loading Made Easier

The author has been particularly interested in Colt accessories and has assembled many different molds, flasks, etc. A fine starting point in this accessory story is Colt's Paterson flask, mold, capper, and loading tool, described in the 1839 patent. The loading tool was a most important feature in this period of development and embodied ideas which soon led to the attachment of a permanent loading lever on rifles and pistols.

Indications of a screw hole and plunger channel, such as required for permanent attachment of a loading lever, are drawn in the sketch appearing on page 2. There is no explanation in the patent text; only the unattached lever tool is featured. This drawing indicates, however, that the attached lever was being considered.

Writing of Colt rifles to Hon. J. R. Poinsett, Secretary of War, July 30, 1840, Captain G. T. Rains suggested the following, "In conclusion permit me to say that a bayonet would be an advantageous appendage to this arm; and the lever rammer, which can be easily prefixed, would add to its efficiency."

The first reference to a permanently attached loading lever coming to my notice appeared late in 1840 in connection with naval trials and is as follows, "The ramrod, or, more properly, the lever, has now been ingeniously fitted permanent to Colt's carbine, and facilitates in a great degree the loading. This is an important improvement, and the liability to drop the lever is now obviated."

This improvement was truly important in reloading, for instead of a loose frame, barrel, wedge, cylinder, lever, and loading components, the pistol or rifle could be kept completely assembled with only the components to be juggled!

"Mr. Henry B. Crosby," says Trumbull, "is accredited with the honor of adjusting the first lock used on the patent arms, and also of fixing on Colt's revolver the first ramrod lever attachment ever placed on a pistol."

As late as 1843, John Ehlers advertised "Colt's Repeating pistols, with the latest improvement," and illustrated the pocket model with an attached loading lever. Hence, it seems more proper to date models with attached loading levers later than 1839, all the evidence considered. A loose loading tool did make its appearance in the 1839 patent, but, in considering models designed for the permanently attached loading levers, 1840 appears more exact.

Compared are the relative sizes of Colt's 1849 pocket model made at Hartford and the 1840 pocket model made by Patent Arms Mfg. Co. at Paterson, N. J.

Not only the accessories, but the ammunition as well held Colt's attention prominently in 1839, and he devoted considerable time toward perfecting a waterproof foil cartridge.

Another U. S. Trail 1840

Colt persuaded the War Department to try out his carbines and the United States Navy to test his firearms, both pistols and rifles, in 1840. In the Navy trials pistols are mentioned for the first time in an official government report, and it is believed that this was the first time they were officially demonstrated.

Again the reports of the board members were mostly unfavorable but tempered by some small encouragement in these words, "The undersigned would not, however, wish to be understood as condemning altogether the use of these arms on board ship; on the contrary, they are decidedly of opinion that every vessel of war should be supplied with a sufficient number of these rifles and pistols for arming boat expeditions."

A Senate report, printed in 1851, provided considerable information concerning the Paterson Colt period. Here it is learned that the Navy, late in 1840, undertook further experiments with Colt firearms, at Governor's Island, N. Y. This report was somewhat more favorable than previous findings, but still qualified and conservative.

"Texas Paterson"

About this time Sam urged the sale of pistols and rifles to some Texas buyers at cost. He felt that this would introduce them in some quantity and stimulate a lively demand. The Texas frontier, with active skirmishing involving the Texans with Indians and Mexicans, was a good proving ground for the new "Five Shooter" pistols, and for repeating rifles.

Commodore Moore's testimony, previously quoted, would designate 1843 as the approximate year in which the Texas Rangers obtained their pistols from the Texas Navy.

"Texas Paterson" is a popular phrase among collectors. The model favored by Texans was principally of .36 caliber, with a large grip. In old records, several frontiersmen, such as Maj. Carlton referred to them as "Colt's pistols of the largest size."

Very little profit certainly accrued to the Patent Arms M'g. Co. from Texas sales, regardless of the date and manner in which the arms were introduced. But the "Texas Paterson" laurels gathered on this frontier helped materially to bring profitable orders to Colt later at Hart Ford, via Whitneyville.

In 1854 Sam said, "I did not make any money until lately; I made none in America until my arms were employed in the Service, by the energy of the people who first went to Florida, next to Texas, in the wars with the Indians, and finally to Mexico; that completed the reputation of my arm so far as America is concerned."

The Capt. Sam H. Walker papers of 1846 enumerate, in U. S. custody in Texas, various pistols, carbines, flasks, bullet molds, percussion priming boxes, and screwdrivers, all of Colt's patent.

Beginning Of The End

A long series of disagreements between the reckless showman, Sam Colt, and his conservative cousin, Dudley Selden, contributed to Dudley's resignation as Secretary and Manager of the Patent Arms M'g. Co. John Ehlers succeeded Dudley Selden, and Ehler's name put in an appearance for the first time in Doggett's New York Business directory, 1840 41, as follows: "Ehlers, John, Patent firearms, 155 Broadway."

Possibly as the result of the 1840 trials at New York, the United States Ordnance Department took a more favorable attitude toward Colt's firearms, and ordered one hundred repeating carbines on March 2, 1841, and another sixty on the following July 23rd. The price was $45 each, quite a reduction from the $125 paid for Colt ring lever rifles in Florida several years before.

The Shadow Lengthens

This token of governmental patronage meant little, however, in preventing the collapse of the Paterson venture, for it came much too late. Many causes contributed to the failure.

During President Martin Van Buren's administration (1837 41) a near panic gripped the Nation. Money was scarce. We were at peace; no urgent need for armaments. The comparatively high cost of Colt's arms, in a depressed market, was a very serious handicap.

Youthful Sam Colt's ideas were extravagant and revolutionary; his financial accountings were slipshod. This was directly opposed to the meticulous New England conservatism of cousin Dudley Selden. Internal friction in the company's affairs was constant. Sam was 100% correct in his belief that he could not succeed without governmental patronage. Assiduously he sought the ear of those with political influence. Concerning Sam's Washington efforts, Cousin Dudley complained, "You use money as if it were drawn from an inexhaustible mine. I have no belief in undertaking to raise the character of your gun by old Madeira.

"By its very nature, Sam's contract with the Patent Arms M'g. Co. caused friction and a division of interests. The Flintlock era was just drawing to a close. Army oldsters were not trustful of Colt's new fangled invention; they wanted more than the expansive aims of a stripling, and their favor came too slowly to keep the Colt ship afloat. Little did Sam Colt and salesman Zabriskie (a distinguished family in northern New Jersey) realize that the arms they were trying so hard to sell would one day bring many times the factory list price to hang in a collector's cabinet!

His Luck Was Bad

Some years ago a similar version of the following story was told by Mr. Crosby's grandson:

"On one occasion, of many like ones, Messrs. Colt and Crosby went to Washington, and with them several men best skilled in the use of the weapon, the object being to give a convincing display of its wonderful power. The men were drawn up in a line at the Capitol, waiting for the command to fire, Mr. Colt and a group of Army officers holding their watches in their hands to note the time, when the carriage of the President drove up. The President stepped out and stood on the Capitol steps. Then the word was given and the arches of the rotunda rang with sharp and continuous detonations.

"The display was a wonderful success, but a most unfortunate and fatal catastrophe spoiled all. The carriage horses of the President, mettlesome animals, were rendered wild with affright at the firing and were soon out of control. They reared and then dashed forward, causing the carriage to strike the gate column with such force that the driver was thrown to a considerable height, whence he fell on an iron railing and was almost instantly killed.

This, it is said, gave the President such a prejudice against the arm that he always opposed its adoption. Disheartened after so many setbacks, Sam considered for a time removal to England and the formation of a Company there. He might have done so, had not an English financier, with whom he negotiated, proved incapable of the needed assistance.

A final parting of the ways between Colt and Ehlers came with the discovery that Ehlers was not crediting Sam properly on royalties due. Sam was through. He engaged competent attorneys, demanded a thorough accounting, and tied the Patent Arms M'g. Co. up in a complicated lawsuit.

Lawsuits And Bankruptcy 1842 to 43

The litigation started by Colt in 1841 lasted five or six years. Ehlers, in 1842, threw the Patent Arms M'g. Co. into bankruptcy, and by late 1843 its affairs had been substantially liquidated.

Years later, in London, Colt stated, "I had to pay $30,000 out of my pocket for this failure." This sounds like one of Sam's "more extravagant" claims. A total loss of many dollars to stockholders and others concerned did accompany the failure, and Sam remarked that the only beneficial result of the venture was gaining experience in making the arms themselves and the machinery required to manufacture them.

John Ehlers acquired a substantial portion of the sold firearms at the factory, and he continued in business (1843 45 at 171 Broadway, and 1845 47 at 2 Barclay St., New York City), and advertised Colt's patent repeating pistols up until 1847. Ehlers sold "50 Boarding pistols, 5 charged each" at $25 apiece to the U. S. Government, making delivery on September 10, 1845. Through the courtesy of Dr. Arthur Woodward, we learn that Ehlers advertised his Paterson firearms in The American Flag, of May 23, 1847, published in Matamoros, Mexico, opposite the present city of Brownsville. Underneath a woodcut picturing a Paterson pistol was the following: "Special permission having been granted to Mr. Ehlers to sell his Colt's Repeating Fire Arms under certain restrictions the officers of the army are respectfully informed that these arms are now for sale at the office of the subscriber (Casa de Don Andres Saldana) on the street leading south, at the southwest corner of the Plaza de Hidalgo. Private soldiers and American citizens can also be accommodated with them, but must first produce written permission, the soldier from the commanding officer, and the citizen from the commander of this city, Col. Davenport." The advertisement further stated that "Colt's Patent Repeating Rifles, Carbines, and Pistols with the latest in improvements of 1844, 1845 and 1846 (apparently Ehler's arms assembled from Paterson parts) are the most complete weapon ever invented perfect in all their parts."

Several incidents of entertaining character were related by Trumbull, in his early book on the history of industrial Paterson, such as:
"When the crisis came, and the Sheriff was expected every moment, about $60,000 worth of magnificent arms was hidden under the coal and elsewhere. Other property, including a portion of the splendid machinery, was also secreted.

"It was just before the grand catastrophe that Mr. Colt, offered a half interest in the patent to John Ryle for $5000. When the crash came, H. B. Crosby was a creditor of the Company for wages due to a considerable amount, and the only way in which he could secure his own was to take about twenty five sets of the different portions of the arm. These he later put together and realized a handsome sum."

Emerging from this maze of trial and tribulation is the important fact that Samuel Colt's patents were restored to him. Edward Dickerson, a New York attorney, is credited with rendering invaluable assistance to Sam in this regard.

This brings to a conclusion the outline of events associated with the manufacture, development, and promotion of Paterson pistols. Further light will be shed on the activities of this era in connection with Colt Paterson shoulder arms.

Our Mission: To know the price of everything and to share our knowledge universally with everyone.

Our mission statement is a testament to our commitment:
"To know the price of everything and to share our knowledge universally with everyone."

This guiding principle shapes everything we do, from the meticulous gathering of data to the way we present it, ensuring access to accurate and up-to-date market values is always within reach.

Our Story

iGuide's journey began with a vision to create a comprehensive repository of pricing information across a myriad of categories—antiques, collectibles, memorabilia, and beyond. We recognized early on the challenges collectors, sellers, and investors faced in finding reliable market values. In response, was born, a beacon for those navigating the often murky waters of market pricing. The iGuide Network is an extensive online appraisal service that specializes in the evaluation and pricing of personal property, including hundreds of categories of antiques and collectibles. From rare finds to everyday items, we appraise just about anything of value, providing a crucial resource for collectors, sellers, and investor alike.

Early History

iGuide was founded in 1984 by Jon R. Warren, a notable figure associated with Overstreet Publications and Wizard Press. Originally starting as a publisher of price guide books such as Warren's Movie Poster Price Guide, Comics Source, The Official Guide to Vintage Paperbacks, and others, iGuide Media, Inc. made its mark in the field of antiques and collectibles. This early endeavor set the stage for what would eventually become a digital powerhouse in the appraisal industry.

About Jon Warren

Our founder, Jon Warren, has been a pioneering figure in the world of collectibles and pricing guides. With an eye for detail and a passion for accuracy, Jon built the foundation for Under his leadership, iGuide has grown from a fledgling site into a trusted authority on price research. Jon's commitment to integrity and transparency remains at the heart of our operations, inspiring our team to continually raise the bar. Warren's vision was clear from the beginning. As the founder of, Jon brought his deep expertise and passion for collectibles to the forefront, transforming the landscape of price research and appraisal. Under his leadership, iGuide evolved from publishing print guides to becoming a digital authority, ensuring Jon's legacy of accuracy and integrity continues to guide our path forward.

Appraisal Services

iGuide Appraisal Services has distinguished itself not only among collectors but also as an expert witness for the IRS and appraiser to the stars. Our expertise has been sought after for appraising the collections of notable individuals, including the extensive movie memorabilia collection of legendary actor John Wayne. Our commitment to educating collectors and estates about the value of their belongings underscores our role as a trusted advisor in the appraisal world.

The Internet

Embracing the dawn of the Internet Age in the 1990s, we recognized the transformative potential of making our database accessible online. In 1999, was launched as a searchable tool for pricing an array of collectibles, including movie posters, comic books, action figures, Beanie Babies, and more. This transition marked a significant milestone, extending our reach and impact globally.


In 2022, iGuide achieved a landmark milestone, having provided over 5 million appraisals to collectors and estates worldwide. This achievement not only reflects our extensive experience and trust within the community but also our commitment to serving the needs of collectors across the globe.

Excited About the Future

As we look ahead, iGuide is excited about the possibilities that artificial intelligence (AI) and data automation offer. We are at the cusp of a new era where AI can sift through vast amounts of unstructured text to distill accurate, real-time pricing data. This technological evolution will enable us to expand our database, refine our accuracy, and offer insights with unprecedented precision. Our aim is not just to keep pace with the advancements but to be at the forefront, leveraging these technologies to empower our users with the most comprehensive and up-to-date pricing information available.

Our new servers located outside Nashville, Tennessee, USA are enabling us to:
  • Expand Our Dataset: Leveraging AI to broaden our categories and items, making our database as comprehensive as possible.
  • Enhance Accuracy: Utilizing data automation to lock and load real market data for real-time updates, ensuring the most current market prices.
  • Empower Users: Developing tools and insights to enable informed decisions for buyers, sellers, or investors exploring the value of collectibles.


At, we believe in the power of information to transform decisions, enrich knowledge, and empower individuals. As we advance, our focus remains steadfast on delivering the unparalleled accuracy and universal accessibility that our mission promises. Through innovation and dedication, we continue to serve those seeking to know the true value of their treasures and investments.

We are dedicated to our mission of demystifying the value of art, antiques, collectibles— indeed, anything of value — and sharing this knowledge universally with everyone. Through ongoing innovation and a commitment to accuracy, we will always serve as the Ground Truth for those seeking to understand the economic value of the rare, the unusual ... the awesome objects we all love.

What is a Mint Mark to a coin collector?

The United States Mint has had several facilities throughout its history, each identified by a unique mint mark. These mint marks are small letters stamped on coins to identify where they were made. Here's a list of the mint marks and the corresponding cities in the United States Mint network:
  • P - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • D - Denver, Colorado
  • S - San Francisco, California
  • CC - Carson City, Nevada
  • W - West Point, New York
  • O - New Orleans, Louisiana
  • C - Charlotte, North Carolina (Historic)
  • D (Historic) - Dahlonega, Georgia
It's worth noting that the Philadelphia mint was the first mint established in the United States, and for a long time, it did not use a mint mark. Modern coins minted in Philadelphia now carry the "P" mint mark, except for the cent. The other mints were established later to accommodate the expansion of the country and the need for coinage. The Carson City, Charlotte, and Dahlonega mints are historic and no longer in operation.

Does it pay to get my rare comic book professionally graded?

In the world of comic book collecting, the authenticity and condition of vintage comics are paramount, impacting their value significantly. Mainstream comic book grading services play a crucial role in this domain, offering professional grading, authentication, and encapsulation services that assure both buyers and sellers of the item's authenticity and condition. Here's a look at the leading authenticators in the comic book industry:

CGC (Certified Guaranty Company)

Established in 2000, CGC is arguably the most recognized comic book grading service globally. It provides a comprehensive grading scale, ranging from 0.5 (Poor) to 10.0 (Gem Mint), offering collectors and investors a reliable measure of the comic book's condition. CGC's encapsulation process also preserves the comic in a tamper-evident, protective holder, ensuring its condition and authenticity remain intact over time.

CBCS (Comic Book Certification Service)

Founded in 2014 by former CGC grader Steve Borock, CBCS has quickly established itself as a significant player in the comic book authentication space. CBCS offers similar services to CGC, including grading, encapsulation, and a detailed report of the item's condition. A unique feature of CBCS is its verification service for signed comics, offering collectors an added layer of authentication for autographed issues.

PGX (Professional Grading eXperts)

PGX, based in Portland, Oregon, has been grading and authenticating comic books since 2002. While it operates on a smaller scale compared to CGC and CBCS, PGX offers competitive pricing and turnaround times. Their grading standards and encapsulation services provide collectors with an alternative option for verifying and protecting their comic book investments.

Evaluating Authentication Services

When choosing a comic book grading service, collectors consider several factors:
  • Reputation: The credibility and recognition of the grading service in the collector community.
  • Accuracy: Consistency and reliability of the grading scale.
  • Protection: Quality of the encapsulation process and the durability of the protective holder.
  • Services Offered: Availability of additional services, such as signature verification or restoration detection.

Learning more about the value of your collection with iGuide's Appraisal Reports

Understanding the value of your comic book collection goes beyond grading and authentication. iGuide's Appraisal Reports offer an in-depth analysis of your collection's current market values, based on real market data. Whether you're a seasoned collector or new to the hobby, iGuide provides valuable insights into the worth of your comics, helping you make informed decisions about buying, selling, or holding onto your pieces.

iGuide's Comic Book Price Guide

Are Beanie Babies worth anything nowadays?

Hey there, Beanie Baby aficionados and curious minds alike! One tidbit about Beanie Babies that might surprise you is the shifting sands of their market values. Let's dive into whether these iconic stuffed toys from the '90s still have a spot in the collectors' market today.

What are Beanie Babies?

Originally launched in the early '90s, Beanie Babies became an instant sensation thanks to their unique design—understuffed animals with plastic pellets ("beans"), which gave them a more flexible, life-like feel. Created by Ty Warner, these toys weren't just playthings but became a cultural phenomenon, sparking one of the first internet-driven collecting crazes.

During their peak, Beanie Babies were more than just toys; they were investments. Parents and collectors alike hunted for rare editions, hoping their acquisitions would soar in value. However, as the initial frenzy waned, so did interest and prices, leading many to wonder about the current state of Beanie Baby collecting.

Market Dynamics

The market for Beanie Babies today is a fascinating study in nostalgia, collectibility, and economic fluctuation. While the bubble of the '90s has certainly burst, a niche market persists for certain rarities. The dynamics have shifted from widespread mania to a more subdued, selective collector interest, with prices reflecting this change.

Factors Influencing Value

Several key factors impact the value of Beanie Babies, including:
  • Grade: The condition is paramount; mint condition with original tags is what collectors want.
  • Rarity: Limited editions or those with production errors fetch higher prices.
  • Demand: Popularity of specific characters can drive up value.
  • Provenance: Historical significance or interesting stories attached to a Beanie Baby can increase interest.

Risks and Rewards

Collecting Beanie Babies, like any collectible, comes with its own set of risks and rewards. While finding a rare, sought-after edition could result in a significant payoff, the fluctuating market means there's also a risk of not recouping your investment.

Does anybody buy Beanie Babies today?

Yes, but the market is more selective. The days of easy sales are gone, replaced by a market of dedicated collectors and enthusiasts. Challenges include a decrease in active dealers and changing collector demographics.

Yet, not all Beanie Babies have lost their sparkle. Certain editions—like the first-edition Princess Diana bear or Peanut the royal blue elephant—can still command impressive prices.

Learn More About Beanie Babies Prices

For those interested in diving deeper into the world of Beanie Babies collecting or simply curious about the value of a childhood toy, iGuide’s Beanie Babies price guide is an invaluable resource. It offers up-to-date pricing information, helping you understand the current market values of your Beanie Babies. Learn more.

Are Hummel figurines worth anything nowadays?

One aspect of Hummel figurines most people are not aware of is the declining market values. Once a beloved hobby that captivated millions worldwide, Hummel figurine collecting has seen a significant downturn. The heyday of this unique form of art and collectible saw enthusiasts eagerly hunting for rare pieces, driving prices to impressive heights. However, as interests shift and the collector base ages, the market for Hummel figurines has experienced a notable decline, affecting their overall prices.

Market Dynamics

The market dynamics of Hummel figurine collecting are influenced by a complex interplay of economic considerations. The decline in demand, coupled with an oversupply of common pieces, has led to decreased prices. Yet, the market remains vibrant for rare and unique Hummel figurines, which continue to attract high bids at auctions and from private collectors. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for both buyers and sellers to navigate the market effectively.

Factors Influencing Value

Several factors determine the price and collectibility of Hummel figurines, including:
  • Grade: The condition of the figurine plays a significant role in its value.
  • Rarity: Limited edition and hard-to-find pieces command higher prices.
  • Demand: Figurines that are highly sought after by collectors are more valuable.
  • Provenance: A well-documented history can increase a figurine's desirability.

Risks and Rewards

Trading in Hummel figurines, like any collectible, presents both risks and rewards. While the potential for significant returns exists, particularly with rare items, market fluctuations can also lead to losses. Collectors must weigh the sentimental value of their collections against the financial investment and market trends.

Does anybody buy Hummel figurines today?

The market for Hummel figurines has contracted, partly due to the aging of primary dealers and collectors. However, there remains a niche community of enthusiasts who appreciate the artistry and history of these pieces. Finding buyers may be challenging, but not impossible, especially for well-preserved, rare models.

It's important for investors to remember that not all Hummel figurines are considered "trash"; some remain in high demand, such as those from the Century Collection. These pieces continue to be sought after by collectors and can fetch considerable sums.

Learn More About Hummel Figurine Prices

iGuide's Hummel figurine price guide is an excellent resource for finding pricing information about your Hummel figurines and their current values. Learn more.

About Our Founder

Our story begins with a poor kid from Mississippi who turned his fascination with "old stuff" into a business while still a teenager in the 1970s. With $400 borrowed from a local coin shop owner (who knew him as a regular customer and saw something special in the young man) Jon built a successful business in antiques and collectibles. As business grew, he expanded into publishing books and price guides for fellow collectors. But Jon was never one to rest on his laurels — he had a vision for something new and unique.

An early "electronic publisher"

In the late 1990s, he registered as a web domain and began migrating his vast database of collectibles knowledge to the fast-growing Internet. Over time, Jon's dream of creating a "new kind of price guide" unlike any other began to come into focus. With bespoke appraisals and cutting edge data analytics, his vision for a pricing engine took shape. The iGuide team worked tirelessly to challenge the status quo and push the envelope of what accurate pricing data means. And now, after years of research and hard work, has emerged with a new brand of innovation and creativity in the world of pricing knowledge. While our techniques may be new, our dedication and passion for accuracy is unrivaled. Join us as we continue to push the limits of what it means to be a knowledgeable collector — the journey is just beginning.

About our founder

Jon has been involved in the antiques and collectibles industry since the 1970s. He started his business as a teenager, owning a rare stamp business called "Rarities, Inc.", and opened his first retail shop at age 18. He has been buying, selling, and appraising rare coins and collectibles for decades, even before the Internet.

Warren is an internationally recognized expert in the field of antiques and collectibles, having authored numerous price guides, including "Warren's Movie Poster Price Guide," "The Official Price Guide to Paperback Books," and "Wizard: The Guide to Comics." He served as the senior price guide editor for Wizard Magazine, Toyfare Magazine, and Inquest magazine from 1993 to 2003. Prior to that, he was the senior editor of The Overstreet Update, a price guide for collectors of rare comic books.

In addition to his books, Warren has also provided certified appraisal services for many important collections, including the Movie Memorabilia Collection of Michael Wayne, son of legendary actor John Wayne. He has worked as a consultant for Heritage Auction Galleries of Dallas, TX and others.

Warren is the founder of several companies in the collectibles industry, including 2nd Markets Corporation, Soldster, and iGuide. These platforms provide services for buying, selling, and appraising antiques, art, coins, old currency, knives, movie memorabilia, rare comic books, vintage collectibles, and memorabilia of all kinds.

Jon graduated summa cum laude from Bryan College with a degree in Business Administration: Informational Management, and magna cum laude with a degree in Computer Science. He is a member of The Project Management Institute and The American Society of Appraisers.

What is Passwordless Login and why should we care?

Passwordless login is a method of authentication that allows users to access accounts and services without the need to remember and input a traditional password. Instead, it relies on alternative forms of verification, such as a one-time code sent via SMS or email, biometric data (fingerprint or facial recognition), or even hardware tokens. This approach not only simplifies the login process but also enhances security by reducing the risk associated with password theft and reuse.

Importance in Web-Based Software Services Evolution

The significance of passwordless login in the evolution of web-based software services stems from the growing frustration among users over managing an increasing number of passwords for different services. The traditional password system is becoming a bottleneck for user experience, leading to "password fatigue" – a scenario where users are weary of creating new passwords and remembering them. In the current digital landscape, where security breaches are common, a passwordless approach offers a more secure and user-friendly alternative, mitigating the risks of compromised passwords while simplifying the login process.

Passwordless Login and Long Lived Sessions

Passwordless login and long-lived sessions work together to significantly improve the user experience by streamlining access to services while maintaining security. Once a user is authenticated through a passwordless method, a long-lived session can keep the user logged in over extended periods, even across different devices, without the need to re-authenticate frequently. This seamless experience reduces friction, making web navigation and service use more fluid and enjoyable. Long-lived sessions are managed carefully to balance convenience with security, often involving mechanisms like automatic session expiration after a period of inactivity or requiring re-authentication for sensitive actions.

The Future of Web Authentication

Websites that fail to integrate passwordless login and long-lived sessions will soon be as outdated as the horse and buggy carriage. In an era where user experience and security are paramount, clinging to traditional password-based authentication methods is a recipe for obsolescence. The shift towards more innovative and user-friendly authentication methods is not just a trend but a necessity in the ever-evolving digital landscape.

Smart web entrepreneurs are implementing these features as quickly as possible, leveraging services like Auth0 to make the transition simple and transparent. Auth0 and similar platforms offer robust solutions for implementing passwordless authentication seamlessly, helping businesses to enhance security, improve user satisfaction, and stay competitive in the digital age.

In conclusion, the move towards passwordless login and long-lived sessions represents a significant leap forward in making web services more accessible, secure, and user-friendly. As we continue to navigate the complexities of digital security and user experience, adopting these innovative authentication methods will be crucial for the future success of web-based software services.

Monetization Strategy: Using Credits for Paywall Access

The use of credits or tokens as a form of currency within platforms allows users to pay for access to premium services, content, or features without the burden of yet another recurring monthly subscription fee. It also enables a "micro-payments" strategy. This strategy provides a flexible and user-centric approach to monetization, especially popular in Software as a Service (SaaS), digital platforms, and online services sectors.

Key Elements of the Strategy

  • Flexibility: Users can purchase credits in advance and use them at their discretion, offering a pay-as-you-go model that is often more attractive than fixed subscriptions.
  • User Engagement: By allowing users to decide how and when to spend their credits, platforms can increase engagement and customer satisfaction.
  • Incremental Revenue: This model encourages users to keep returning and spending on the platform, providing a steady revenue stream.
  • Scalability: Adding new services or content for users to spend credits on can scale revenue growth effectively.

Successful Examples

Several industries broadly apply this model effectively:
  • Gaming Platforms: Many online games use credits for in-game purchases, character upgrades, or to unlock special content.
  • Cloud Computing Services: Platforms like Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud, and Microsoft Azure adopt a pay-as-you-go model where users pay for the compute resources they consume, akin to spending credits.
  • Online Education Platforms: Sites like Udemy or Coursera allow users to buy courses individually, offering a form of credit spending on education.
  • Stock Media: Shutterstock and Getty Images let users purchase credits to download images or videos, providing flexible access to media assets.
  • API Services: Similar to Metals-Api, many API providers use a credit system where developers pay for the amount of API calls they make, optimizing costs based on usage.

Future of Credit-Based Monetization in SaaS

The credit-based monetization strategy presents a promising future for revenue generation in the SaaS and digital services landscape. Its flexibility caters to the growing demand for personalized and user-driven consumption models. As customers increasingly seek control over their spending and access to services, platforms that offer granular, usage-based pricing models like credits will likely see higher engagement and customer loyalty.

This model also aligns with the broader trends of digital transformation and the subscription economy, where users are accustomed to paying for exactly what they use rather than blanket access. As technology continues to evolve, we can expect to see more innovative applications of this strategy, potentially integrating with emerging technologies like blockchain for transparent and secure transactions.

In conclusion, the credit-based model offers a scalable, flexible, and user-focused approach to monetization that can significantly enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty while providing a steady revenue stream for SaaS and digital platforms. Its adaptability and alignment with current consumer preferences suggest it will continue to play a crucial role in the future of SaaS revenue generation.

What are the rarest Morgan silver dollars?

Morgan silver dollars, minted from 1878 to 1904 and then again in 1921, are among the most popular and collected coins in the United States. Their value is determined by several factors, including mint year, mint mark, condition, and rarity. Here are some of the rarest and most valuable Morgan silver dollars:

1889-CC The Carson City mint produced fewer Morgan dollars than any other mint, and the 1889-CC is particularly rare, especially in higher grades. It's one of the most sought-after coins by collectors.

1895 "Proof Only" Got one of these? It is worth a small fortune. The 1895 Morgan dollar is known as the "King of the Morgan Dollars" because no business strike coins are known to exist, only proofs. With a reported mintage of only 880 proofs, it's a rare find for any collector.

1884-S The 1884-S is another Morgan dollar that, while not rare in terms of overall mintage, is extremely rare in higher grades. Most of the mintage was circulated, leaving few in uncirculated condition.

1886-O While not as rare in terms of mintage numbers, the 1886-O Morgan dollar is incredibly scarce in high grades. Most were either heavily circulated or poorly struck, making Mint State examples rare.

1892-S While the 1892-S Morgan dollar had a relatively large mintage, high-grade examples are exceedingly rare. Most were circulated heavily, making high-grade specimens a rarity.

1893-OThe New Orleans mint produced fewer Morgan dollars in 1893, making the 1893-O another rare and valuable coin, particularly in higher grades.

1893-S The 1893-S Morgan dollar is the key date of the series, with the lowest mintage of any regular issue at only 100,000 coins. High-grade examples are exceedingly rare and highly prized by collectors.

1894 With one of the lowest mintages for a Morgan dollar at the Philadelphia mint, the 1894 is scarce in all grades and especially rare in higher grades. 1901 The 1901 Morgan dollar from the Philadelphia mint, especially in high grades, is considered rare due to the low survival rate of high-quality coins.

The value of these rare Morgan dollars can vary greatly depending on their condition and the current market demand. Coins graded by reputable grading services in uncirculated condition (MS) can fetch premium prices, often reaching into the tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars for the rarest in high grades. It's essential for collectors to consult up-to-date price guides or seek appraisals from trusted numismatic professionals to determine the current market value of these rare coins.

What are the ten most valuable comic books?

One aspect of comic books that often surprises folks is their monetary value. Yes, beyond the action-packed narratives and vibrant illustrations lies a realm where comic books are more than just reading material—they're treasures, some with price tags that can make your eyes pop!

The hobby of comic book collecting is an exciting adventure into a vibrant market, particularly for those special vintage editions. It's a world where nostalgia meets investment, where the thrill of the hunt can sometimes lead to finding a real gem. These aren't just pieces of paper bound together; they're pieces of history, of art, and for some, a seriously valuable investment.

The Ten Most Valuable Comic Books

  • Action Comics #1 - The debut of Superman and arguably the birth of the superhero genre. Valued at over $3 million for copies in top condition.
  • Detective Comics #27 - Introducing Batman, the dark knight of Gotham. Copies have sold for over $2 million.
  • Amazing Fantasy #15 - The first appearance of Spider-Man, swinging into the hearts of fans and fetching around $1 million at auctions.
  • X-Men #1 - The introduction of the X-Men, a team of mutants fighting for peace and equality. Valued at up to $500,000.
  • Batman #1 - The first solo Batman comic, introducing iconic characters like Joker and Catwoman. Can be worth around $500,000.
  • All-American Comics #16 - The first appearance of Green Lantern, shining a light on values up to $200,000.
  • Marvel Comics #1 - The beginning of Marvel Comics, introducing characters like Human Torch and Namor. Values can reach up to $500,000.
  • Tales of Suspense #39 - The debut of Iron Man, valued at around $375,000 for pristine copies.
  • Captain America Comics #1 - The first appearance of Captain America, punching his way up to $343,000.
  • Flash Comics #1 - Introducing Flash and Hawkman, with values sprinting to $450,000.

Market Dynamics

The comic book market is a fascinating ecosystem, driven by the forces of supply and demand, rarity, condition, and the ever-changing winds of pop culture. It's a place where a comic book's value can skyrocket overnight because of a movie announcement or sink due to oversupply. Understanding these dynamics can help collectors navigate the market more effectively, making smarter decisions about when to hold onto a piece and when it might be the perfect time to sell.

Remember, not all comic books are destined to fetch six or seven figures. The value of comic books can vary widely, with many factors influencing their worth. It's the stories of these top-valued comics that capture our imaginations, but it's the rarity, condition, and cultural significance that really pump up their prices.

Learn More About Comic Book Prices

If you're bitten by the collecting bug and want to know more about the value of your comic books, or if you're just curious about what treasures might be hidden in your attic, iGuide’s comic book price guide is the place to start. It's a treasure trove of pricing information for rare comic books and their current values, helping you learn more about this exciting and potentially lucrative hobby.